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Sri Suktam, the Hymn to the Divine Mother, the Power of Wealth

Mahalakshmi is one of the most prominent personalities of the Divine Shakti. She is the power of
Ananda, Infinite Delight, Harmony and Wealth of the Supreme. In the Vedic tradition she is known as
Shree Devi, the power of the Divine Wealth and Bliss. Very often people think of Laksmi as the
power of money. But in fact she cannot be easily compared with the money power today. For she
shall not come to those who live only for themselves or deviate from the truth, abuse others or have
imperfect thoughts or desires, or where there is no peace or joy of sharing etc. Her prosperity is
based on the growth of Consciousness, Love and Harmony.
There is however another power of money mentioned in the Veda. It is the power of Panis, dwellers
in the dark, described as dealers and traders, misers and traffickers of wealth, plunderers and
thieves of the Divine Riches. They live in the subconscious cave of our being, named Vala. Their cave
itself is full of divine treasures they have stolen from the seekers of Light. They do not share this
wealth with those who need it, especially with Aryans, who aspire for a higher life and growth of
consciousness in this manifestation. Instead they trade it and deal with it as if it was meant only for
one purpose to increase their own power. Their purpose is not to make Consciousness and Beauty
grow in the world, not even for themselves, for they do not know the true value of the stolen
wealth, but to increase their own position and power by accumulating more and more wealth which
is not theirs. Wealth for them has become a means for their self-assertion. Themselves they cannot
sacrifice, cannot give, and they hate those who give and sacrifice. They hate the Divine Word, and
fight against all those who express it in their consciousness and offer themselves to the growth of
the Divine Presence in them and in the world. They are masters of money today and not Lakshmi.
Their power is built on and driven by the sexual energy and not that of the soul. And that is a
fundamental difference between Lakshmi who represents the Divine Love rising from the heart of
man and the Panis who rule, utilizing the sexual energy of Nature for their domination. In the Sri
Suktam this power of Panis is called Alakshmi, literally ‘where Lakshmi is not’ and cannot be.
In the Veda Panis are conquered by the Angiras Rishis, our Forefathers, with the help of Indra, the
Lord of the Divine Mind, Brihaspati, the Lord of the Divine Word, Agni, the Divine Will, Usha, the
Illumining Power of Infinite Consciousness, Aditi, and other great godheads, who thus create for us
the Sunlit Path for our growth and self-finding.
Sri Aurobindo in the letter to a sadhak writes about the force of money and Yogic attitude we must
take to conquer and offer it at the feet of the Divine Mother, Mahalaksmi, to whom it truly belongs:
“Money is a sign of universal force, and this force in its manifestation on earth works on the vital and
physical planes and is indispensable to the fullness of outer life. In its origin and its true action it
belongs to the Divine. But like other powers of the Divine it is delegated here and in the ignorance of
the lower Nature can be usurped for the uses of the ego or held by Asuric influences and perverted
to their purpose.
This is indeed one of the three forces – power, wealth, sex – that have the strongest attraction for
the human ego and the Asura and are most generally misheld and misused by those who retain
The seekers or keepers of wealth are more often possessed rather than its possessors; few escape
entirely a distorting influence stamped on it by its long seizure and perversion by the Asura.
For this reason most spiritual disciplines insist on complete self-control, detachment and
renunciation of all bondage to wealth and of all personal and egoistic desire for its possession. Some
even put a ban on money and riches and proclaim poverty and bareness of life as the only spiritual
condition. But this is an error; it leaves the power in the hands of the hostile forces. To reconquer it
for the Divine to whom it belongs and use it divinely for the divine life is the supramental way for the
You must neither turn with an ascetic shrinking from the money power, the means it gives and the
object it brings, nor cherish a rajasic attachment to them or a spirit of enslaving self-indulgence in
their gratifications.
Regard wealth simply as a power to be won back for the Mother and placed at her service.
All wealth belongs to the Divine and those who hold it as trustees, not possessors. It is with them
today, tomorrow it may be elsewhere. All depends on the way they discharge their trust while it is
with them, in what spirit, with what consciousness in their use of it, to what purpose.
In your personal use of money look on all you have or get or bring as the Mother’s.
Make no demand but accept what you receive from her and use it for the purposes for which it is
given to you. Be entirely selfless, entirely scrupulous, exact, careful in detail, a good trustee; always
consider that it is her possessions and not your own that you are handling.
On the other hand, what you receive for her, lay religiously before her; turn nothing to your own or
anybody else’s purpose.
Do not look up to men because of their riches or allow yourself to be impressed by the show, the
power of influence.
When you ask for the Mother, you must feel that it is she who is demanding through you a very little
of what belongs to her and the man from whom you ask will be judged by his response.
If you are free from money-taint but without any ascetic withdrawal, you will have greater power to
command the money for the divine work.
Equality of mind, absence of demand and the full dedication of all you possess and receive and all
your power of acquisition to the Divine Shakti and her work are the signs of this freedom.
Any perturbation of mind with regard to money and its use, any claim, any grudging is a sure index
of some imperfection or bondage.
The ideal Sadhaka in this kind is one who if required to live poorly can so live and no sense of want
will affect him or interfere with the full inner play of the divine consciousness, and if he is required
to live richly, can so live and never for a moment fall into desire or attachment to his wealth or to
the things that he uses or servitude to self-indulgence or a weak bondage to the habits that the
possession of riches creates.
The divine Will is all for him and the divine Ananda.
In the supramental creation the money force have to be restored to the Divine Power and used for a
true and beautiful and harmonious equipment and ordering of a new divinised vital and physical
existence in whatever way the Divine Mother herself decides in her creative vision.
But first it must be conquered back for her and those will be the strongest for the conquest who are
in this part of their nature strong and large and free from ego and surrendered without any claim or
withholding or hesitation, pure and powerful channels for the supreme Puissance.”
Here is our translation of Sri Suktam, which is one of the oldest hymns to the Goddess Lakshmi from
the appendixes (khilanis) of Bāṣkala recention of the Ṛgveda.
Śrī Sūktam
Om hiraṇyavarṇāṃ hariṇīṃ suvarṇarajatasrajām/
Candrāṃ hiraṇmayīṃ lakṣmīṃ jātavedo ma āvaha /1
OM, O Jatavedas, bring to me the Golden [Goddess] Lakshmi, of green and yellow [light], wearing
golden and silver necklace, shining like a golden Moon!
Jatavedas is a name of Agni in the Veda, meaning ‘the one who knows all who are born here on
earth’. He is the Flame of the Divine Will lit for the purpose of the Sacrifice, the divine manifestation
in material world. It is he who should bring the Divine Lakshmi here, which means that she can come
to us only through the act of the Sacrifice.
Vedic sacrifice, yajña, is the process by which the higher powers of universal consciousness are
invoked and brought down into our life by the kindled aspiration within us for the sake of
transformation of our life on earth. All here is done only for this transformation and the final
manifestation of the Divine in the material universe. The goal of this Sacrifice is Immortality,
In the Gita 3.9 Sri Krishna says: yajñārthāt karmaṇo ‘nyatra loko’yaṃ karmabandhanaḥ, ‘it is by
Karma which is done for the sake of the sacrifice that the people are free from its consequence’. The
only action in this world which gives us freedom is Karma done for the sake of sacrifice, that is to
say, the work for the growth of Consciousness in the material manifestation.
Tāṃ ma āvaha jātavedo lakṣmīm anapagāminīm/
Yasyāṃ hiraṇyaṃ vindeyaṃ gām aśvaṃ puruṣān aham/2
That [goddess] bring to me, O Jatavedas, Lakshmi, who never goes away,
In whom I shall find [all] luminous wealth, knowledge, power [and all the souls of] men.
The Rishi invokes Lakshmi who brings with her Gold, Cow, Horse and Men.
These are the symbolic fruits of the Vedic Sacrifice. Gold symbolizes realization of the highest planes
of consciousness, the spiritual realization on all the levels of consciousness and being. Cow , ‘go’,
means also the ray of light, and is symbolic of the light of the Divine Knowledge. Aśva, horse, lit.
meaning ‘running’, ‘quick’, ‘swift’, is a swiftness of the Divine Power. And it is mentioned throughout
the Veda about the sacrificial gift desired by Rishis where the Cow is to stand in front of the Horse
(goagram aśvapeśasam ratim, RV 2.1.16 ; 1.92.7 etc.) Purushas in the Rigveda are the symbol of the
souls of men who are conscious of their Origin and therefore their purpose, they are called also nṛ,
nara, vīra, the heroic souls, the worriers of Light fighting against the forces of Darkness. They are
capable of doing the work of Sacrifice manifesting the Divine Presence, Knowledge, Power and Bliss
in the world. All these are true gifts of the Vedic Sacrifice, with whose help the transformation of our
unregenerate self can be effectuated.
Aśvapūrvāṃ rathamadhyāṃ hastinādaprabodhinīm/
Śriyaṃ devīm upahvaye śrīr mā devīr juṣatām/3
Standing in the middle of the chariot with horses in front, awaking with trumpeting of the elephants,
Goddess Sri I invoke! The Goddess Sri should accept me with happiness.
Vedic imagery of the chariot carrying the Gods is another spiritual symbol of a particular spiritual
experience. Gods cannot reach out to our plane without a travel. They abide in their own realm and
from that place they have to travel, as it were, to our plane of consciousness. This travel is
symbolized by the movement of chariot with horses as its powers in front. In one of the hymns of
the Rigveda Rishi compares his composition of the hymn with the making of a chariot by a carpenter.
‘With the help of this Hymn-Chariot I shall rise to Heaven’, says Rishi.
kāṃ sosmitāṃ hiraṇyaprākārām ārdrāṃ jvalantīṃ tṛptāṃ tarpayantīm/
padme sthitāṃ padmavarṇāṃ tām ihopahvaye śriyam/ 4
I call down Sri, who is in the Lotus, and of the Lotus color,
Who thus creates the golden light with a smile, flaming, and ever-young, always satisfied and always
Candrāṃ prabhāsāṃ yaśasā jvalantīṃ śriyaṃ loke devajuṣṭām udārām/
Tāṃ padminīm īṃ śaraṇam ahaṃ prapadye ‘lakṣmīr me naśyatāṃ tvāṃ vṛṇe/ 5
The most luminous of all the luminaries (like the Moon among the Stars), flaming with the Glory in
this world, loved by the Gods, I find my refuge in the Lotus holder, prostrating in front [of Her]! May
my misfortune vanish! I choose you, [O Lakshmi]!
Ādityavarṇe tapaso’dhijāto vanaspatis tava vṛkṣo’tha bilvaḥ/
Tasya phalāni tapasā nudantu māyāntarāyāś ca bāhyā alakṣmīḥ/ 6
O [Golden one] with the color of the Sun, Vanaspati is born from the Supreme Power, Tapas, He is
your Tree and your Fruit,
May its fruits remove the internal and external misfortunes of the Maya by the Tapas.
She is of the color of the Sun. The Sun in the Rig Veda is the symbol of the Supramental Truth, the
plane of Satyam, Ṛtam, Bṛhad, the Truth, the Right, the Vast. In the Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2.5 it is called
Vijñānam. It is the plane where the whole manifestation takes place. Vijñānam yajñam tanute,
karmāṇi tanute’pi ca, vijñānam devāḥ sarve brahma jyeṣṭham upāsate, ‘Vijñāna creates and spreads
the Sacrifice, and all the Works indeed, for Vijñāna is all the gods, who worship Brahman as the
The Sun itself is the creation by the Supreme Tapas, (RV 10.190.1 ṛtaṃ ca satyaṃ cābhāddhāt tapaso
‘dhy ajāyata, ‘the Right and the Truth were born from the Flaming Tapas of the Divine Power’, and so
the Lord of Delight, Vanaspati, whose Shakti is Lakshmi, who dwells in him as her own home tree
and is its fruit.
So it is with the help of Tapas that all the Alakshmis, inner and outer, can be removed. It is
interesting to note here that it is not by the power of Lakshmi that Alakshmi can be removed but by
the Divine Power, Tapas, which is the source of them both.
Upaitu māṃ devasakhaḥ kīrtiśca maṇinā saha/
Prādurbhūto ‘smi rāṣṭre ‘smin kīrtim ṛddhiṃ dadātu me/ 7
May the friend of the God approach me and the Glory with the Pearl.
I am made visible (manifested) in this luminous kingdom, [and] in this [kingdom] she should grant
me [her] Glory and Prosperous Growth.
The friend of God, is most probably one of those souls who already realized the union with the
Divine here in the physical body, he expanded the Divine Presence in him, for he has kīrtiḥ, and
concentrated his inner light symbolised by a shining jewel, maṇinā saha. Sakha, lit. means ‘the one
who shares the same space’, sa-kha.
‘I have appeared, made myself visible in your Kingdom’, – says the Rishi. ‘Grant me the expansion
and the growth in this luminous kingdom of yours.’
Kṣutpipāsāmalām jyeṣṭhām alakṣmīṃ nāśayamy aham/
Abhūtim asamṛddhiṃ ca sarvāṃ nirṇuda me gṛhāt/ 8
I destroy mis-fortune, the oldest of impurities of hunger and thirst.
All the calamity and blockage in prosperous growth, [ O Lakshmi], move away from my house!
Kṣudh and pipāsā are two fundamental powers of the first emanations of the Divine Being and
Consciousness, which turned into their opposites: Death and Inconscient. In the Upanishads Rishis
mention is as the original Aśanāyā Mṛtyu (Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad 1.1.2), or as aśanāyā and pipāsā,
‘hunger and thirst’ ( of Aitareya Upaniṣad, 1.2.1.) depicting their influence upon the faculties of
consciousness of the Divine Purusha, who was thus sacrificed for the sake of creation and whose
faculties descended into the Infinite Ocean of Inconscient, (mahatyarṇave prāpatan, AitUp 1.1.2-3).
These hunger and thirst were already there. That is why the misfortune, Alakṣmī is called jyeṣṭhā,
the oldest, for She herself had been there when Lakṣmī arrived. It is as if Alakṣmī is her elder twin
sister. In the Veda we have two sisters Aditi and Diti, the Divine Mother in two personalities: Aditi,
Infinite Consciousness, The Mother of the Gods, and Diti, the Dividing Consciousness, the Mother of
Daityas, Dānavas and Dasyus, the dividers, robbers and demons, the enemies of the gods. Similarly
the Asuras are considered to be the elder brothers of the Gods, for the Gods come after, as it were.
Gandhadvārāṃ durādharṣāṃ nityapuṣṭāṃ karīṣiṇīm/
Īśvarīṃ sarvabhūtānāṃ tām ihopahvaye śriyam/ 9
[The one, who is], cognisable through the Odor, Invincible, whose growth is constant, Karishini (with
a pure smell of the Cow), Mistress of all the creatures, that [goddess] Sri I invoke here.
Gandhadvārā, can be translated as ‘who is reached through the doors of odor’, or ‘whose access is
through odor’; ‘who comes by the means of odor’.
Manasaḥ kāmam ākūtiṃ vācaḥ satyam aśīmahi/
Paśūnāṃ rūpam annasya mayi śrīḥ śrayatāṃ yaśaḥ/10
‘May we realise Mind’s Desire, the Intention of the Word, the Truth, the abundance in the form of
(all perceptions) Pashus and of food! In me Sri should thus fix the Glory.’
Manasaḥ Kāmam, ‘the Desire of the Mind’, is the first seed of light within the darkness to bring it
back to light. It is known as desire and later as the mind itself. It is also associated with the Intention
of the Word rising from the depths of our being, and the Truth which is to be discovered here. These
three: the Divine Mind, Word and Truth are the triple movement of the Divine itself within this
manifestation. The Divine Mind supports it from above, the Divine Word from within the Heart, and
the Divine Truth is rising from within manifestation as the Flame of the Divine Will, Agni.
Paśu, is usually translated as ‘cattle’, but the root of this word is paś/spaś, ‘to see’, ‘to perceive’; it is
the consciousness inherent in the embodied creature.
Kardamena prajābhūtā mayi sambhava kardama/
Śriyaṃ vāsaya me kule mātaraṃ padmamālinīm/ 11
With the help of Prajapati the creatures are born. In me you become the all-powerful, O Prajapati.
Make Mother Sri, who wears the garland of Lotuses, live in my family.
Āpaḥ sṛjantu snigdhāni ciklīta vasa me gṛhe/
Ni ca devīṃ mātaraṃ śriyaṃ vāsaya me kule/12
‘May the Waters create [all things] smooth and lovely!
O Chiklita, (O Smooth and Lovely) live in my house!
And make the Goddess, Mother Shree live in my family.’
Ārdrāṃ puṣkariṇīṃ puṣṭiṃ piṅgalāṃ padmamālinīm/
Candrāṃ hiraṇmayīṃ lakṣmīṃ jātavedo ma āvaha/ 13
O Jatavedas, bring to me, the shining and the golden Lakshmi,
Ever-young and soft, abandoned in lotuses, perfect in growth, gold-colored, with the garlands of
Ārdrāṃ yaḥ kariṇīṃ yaṣṭiṃ suvarṇāṃ hemamālinīm/
Sūryāṃ hiraṇmayīṃ lakṣmīṃ jātavedo ma āvaha/ 14
[The one] who [brings] the ever-young, holding [with] the Golden Rod, and wearing the garland of
the Luminous Daughter of the Sun, the Golden Lakshmi, [it is you], O Jatavedas, bring [her] to me.
Here She is directly called Sūryā, the daughter of the Sun. This is the epithet of the Divine Mother.
She holds the golden Rod, the symbol of the Divine Power.
Tāṃ ma āvaha jātavedo lakṣmīm anapagāminīm/
Yasyāṃ hiramyam prabhūtaṃ gāvo dāsyo ‘śvān vindeyaṃ puruṣān aham/ 15
That [goddess] bring to me, O Jatavedas, Lakshmi, who never goes away,
In whom I shall find [all] luminous wealth, knowledge, power [and all the souls of] men.
Yaḥ śuciḥ prayato bhūtvā juhuyād ājyam anv aham/
Śriyaḥ pañcadaśarcaṃ ca śrīkāmaḥ satataṃ japet/ 16
Who is pure, having surrendered [to Her], he should offer the oblation of the clarified butter every
day, seeking Shree, he should always recite this hymn of Shree, consisting of 15 verses.

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In search of Integral Paradigm of Knowledge: Three Vedic Epistemologies


                                       “The central aim of Knowledge is the recovery of the Self,

                                                                              of our true self-existence.”[1]            


I Three Vedic Epistemologies


Vedic tradition designed many different epistemological frameworks, for the reality can be viewed from many different perspectives. To name only a few examples of such frameworks from the Brahmanic literature here: adhilokam, ‘an approach from the point of view of the worlds or levels of consciousness’, or adhijyautiṣam, ‘from the point of view of their energies’; or adhividyam, ‘from the point of view of dissemination of knowledge’; adhiprajam, ‘from the point of view of generations’;[2] etc. etc. But the most famous are adhibhūta, adhidaiva and adhyātma.


Sri Aurobindo explains clearly their meaning in his essays on the Upanishads:


“In the ancient conception of the universe our material existence is formed from the five elemental states of Matter, the ethereal, aerial, fiery, liquid and solid; everything that has to do with our material existence is called the elemental, adhibhuta.

In this material there move non-material powers manifesting through the Mind-Force and Life-Force that work upon Matter, and these are called Gods or Devas; everything that has to do with the working of the non-material in us is called adhidaiva, that which pertains to the Gods.

But above the non-material powers, containing them, greater than they is the Self or Spirit, Atman, and everything that has to do with this highest existence in us is called the spiritual, adhyatma.”[3]


In the Gita Sri Krishna also briefly defines them, introducing one more category: adhiyajña, the ‘concerning the one who receives the sacrifice’ in the heart of man which he assigns to himself:


akṣaraṃ brahma paramaṃ svabhāvo ’dhyātmam ucyate/

bhūtabhāvodbhavakaro visargaḥ karmasaṃjñitaḥ// 8.3

adhibhūtaṃ kṣaro bhāvaḥ puruṣaš cādhidaivatam/

adhiyajño ‘ham evātra dehe dehabhṛtāṃ vara// 8.4


“The Imperishable is the Transcendental Brahman. Adhyātma is of the Self-nature, svabhāva. Karma creates [all] in terms of past, present and future.

Adhibhūta is of perishable nature; Puruṣa is [central in the perception] of Adhidaiva. But I reside in the body of those who are born here: Adhiyajña.” 


Sri Aurobindo comments on this text in the Essays of the Gita:

“Akshara is the immutable Brahman, spirit or self, Atman; swabhava is the principle of the self, adhyātma, operative as the original nature of the being, “own way of becoming”, and this proceeds out of the self, the Akshara; Karma proceeds from that and is the creative movement, visarga, which brings all natural beings and all changing subjective and objective shapes of being into existence; the result of Karma therefore is all this mutable becoming, the changes of nature developed out of the original self-nature, kṣara bhāva out of svabhāva; Purusha is the soul, the divine element in the becoming, adhidaivata, by whose presence the workings of Karma become a sacrifice, yajña, to the Divine within; adhiyajña is this secret Divine who receives the sacrifice.”[4]


To comprehend the relations between these epistemological frameworks we must look into their origin. Here I should briefly present a view on the fundamentals of Vedantic Philosophy.                                              

The Self, Ātman, according to the Aitareya Upanishad, the Self-Existent Being, was alone at the beginning. This Self Being includes all the modes of Consciousness, Power and Delight within its own potential existence. Thus for the sake of manifestation it projects out of itself, as it were, the worlds for its future habitation, for the dwellers to live within them in the form of Purusha.[5] Then it creates the dwellers within this habitat: the faculties of consciousness, which are coined out of the Primordial Purusha as his Word, Breath, Sight, Hearing, Mind etc. These faculties are projected into the habitat and thus Purusha becomes Universal. So the difference between the Primordial Purusha and the Universal one can be defined as follows: the Purusha who has all the faculties of Consciousness within himself is the Original Purusha, and the one who has his faculties dwelling in the Universe, in the habitat created by Atman, is the Universal Purusha, though it is one and the same Purusha. Literally it is said that the faculties of Consciousness plunged or fell into the Ocean of Inconscient mahaty arṇave prāpatan, and gradually by climbing back on the evolutionary ladder, as it were, recreated the individual form of Purusha.[6] For without individual form of Purusha it would be impossible for them to come back to the Original one. So basically they recreate the Original Purusha within their habitat in the form of the Individual and thus fulfill their purpose. This plunge into the material Inconscient, this Sacrifice of the Original Purusha to become Universal first and then Individual in the evolutionary movement of the involved faculties of Consciousness creates the division within one Self-Existent Being, Atman, and what was known as true existence, satyam, becomes double in nature: ‘true and untrue’, satyam anṛtaṃ ca satyam abhavat, where Truth is complete and incomplete at the same time. [7] On one side it is perceived as infinite and eternal, (indicating ādhyātmika epistemology), and on the other side as finite and temporal (indicating ādhibhautika epistemology). So when the faculties of Consciousness turn towards the inner Self-Existent Being, where there is no change in becoming, akṣara bhāva, in the Individual, through his self-realised nature svabhāva, they define the ādhyātmika epistemology, but when they turn towards the self-becoming of his outer nature, built out of the elements of the habitat, kṣara bhāva, developed out of his self-realised nature svabhāva, they represent adhibhūta approach to knowledge.  But fundamentally there are only two entities: the Self, Atman, (inner and outer, akṣara and kṣara bhāva, approached through the dynamism of the individual, svabhāva) and the Consciousness (puruṣa with his major faculties) perceiving it.


Sri Aurobindo explains that all phenomena of existence whether they are of the outer material universe or of the inner realms of the Self have corresponding faculties of consciousness to cognize them: “The Unknown is not the Unknowable, it need not remain the unknown for us, unless we choose ignorance or persist in our first limitations. For to all things that are not unknowable, all things in the universe, there correspond in that universe faculties which can take cognisance of them, and in man, the microcosm, these faculties are always existent and at a certain stage capable of development. We may choose not to develop them; where they are partially developed, we may discourage and impose on them a kind of atrophy. But, fundamentally, all possible knowledge is knowledge within the power of humanity.”[8] 

So, there is nothing in this universe that cannot be known, for there is always consciousness present in the being to perceive it.


Thus we can call the education of faculties of consciousness Adhidaiva Education, where mind, life and body aim at and work for the realization of the Self (adhyātma) in its manifestation (adhibhūta).

Adhyātma Epistemology is the paradigm of our spiritual self-finding, of our higher nature of Consciousness, through the formation of true individual being in manifestation, svabhāva.

Adhibhūta Epistemology is the scientific, materialistic paradigm of knowledge, related to the outer phenomena of becoming, kṣara bhāva.


So the adhibhūta epistemology is quite clear for us what it actually represents. All the knowledge about the material universe and its functions by the means of the scientific methods is a framework for this epistemology, when the senses are turned outside and are gathering all the data through the outer measurement only.


So let us first deal with the adhidaiva and adhyātma epistemologies.

[1] The Synthesis of Yoga, p.335

[2] TaitUp 1.1-2.

[3]  The Upanishads, p.114

[4] Volume: 13 [SABCL] (Essays on the Gita), Page: 110

[5] lokānnu sṛjā iti, AitUp1.1.1-2, ‘May I create the worlds”, the root sṛj, to take out of oneself, indicates the separation with the Ātman. These worlds heaven and earth and space in-between become the separate habitat (adhibhūta). See also ‘puruṣa-vidhaḥ’ of Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2.3

[6] AitUp 1.1.1-6.

[7]  Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2.6-7 so ‘kāmayata / bahu syāṃ prajāyeyeti / sa tapo ‘tapyata / sa tapastaptvā / idaṃ sarvam asṛjata / yad idaṃ kimca / tat sṛṣñvā / tad evānuprāvišat / tad anupravišya / sac ca tyac cābhavat / niruktaṃ cāniruktaṃ ca nilayanaṃ cānilayanaṃ ca / vijñānaṃ cāvijñānaṃ ca / satyaṃ cānṛtaṃ ca / satyam abhavat /  yad idaṃ kiṃca / tat satyam ityācakṣate /… 6

“He (Atman) wished: “May I become Many! May I procreate!” He flamed in Tapas, having flamed in Tapas, he created All This, whatever exists. Having created it, He indeed entered it. Having entered it, this and that came into being, spoken and unspoken, located and not located, discerned and not discerned, true and untrue, thus the (one) Truth has become, whatever exists.”

[8] The Life Divine, p.13


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Three stages of the Vedic Sacrifice

Three stages of the Vedic Sacrifice and the three liberations of Karma Yoga of the Gita
There are three stages of the Vedic Sacrifice:
1) Preparation of the sacrificial space, where the offering is to be made. It was later associated with defining the spot or ground of the sacrifice in rituals, covering it with the grass called ‘barhis’, where the gods and godheads, the forces of the universal consciousness, could take their seats upon and partake of the offering. The word ‘barhis’ is derived from the root bṛh, ‘to expand’, ‘to widen’; there is also a kindred root bṛṃh, meaning ‘to pluck out’. So symbolically ‘barhis’ means preparing or cleaning up the ground within one’s own consciousness for the universal forces to descend and to take possession of.
2) So once the place is prepared and the fire is kindled, who is to bring the gods down to the sacrificial place, the second stage of the Sacrifice begins. There are procedures of an occult knowledge to invite the gods by uttering the sacred mantras, which represent their powers. The gods are thus spoken of to be born in the one who invokes them. They come to the sacrifice and take their proper place in the orderly fashion sitting ‘on the grass barhis’, partaking in the offering. And this was the way how yajamāna, who offers the sacrifice, is being prepared to grow beyond his individual consciousness.
3) The offering which is thus made by yajamana to the gods, who represent the universal consciousness, in a harmonious and comprehensive manner, will make him eligible to the highest Consciousness of the Supreme, which will thus take possession of, transforming it from the crude and mortal being to the immortal and all blissful representative of the Supreme.
The three stages of the Karma Yoga of the Gita:
1) In the Gita Sri Krishna says: ‘You have the right for the action but not for its fruits’. We can call it a freedom from the fruit of action. It is the method of the first liberation of consciousness in the individual, where by focusing on the action and not its result, or rather by not wanting it egoistically for ones own sake, as it were, one opens up for some higher and more universal possibilities to take place within oneself. One cleans up the inner space from the claims of the egoistic consciousness.
2) In the second stage one must become free from the action itself, or, to be more precise, from the preferences of habitual and selfish action. One must be able to take or give up any preferred activity with the equal spirit. Thus the action itself becomes free from the claims of the egoistic consciousness and not only from its fruits, for it is now done by the powers of universal consciousness and the fruit of it belongs now to them. That is why there had to be a kind of disengagement from the fruit of action in the first place, which would actually mean that the offering was made to the powers of the universal consciousness. It is like the action is done but the claim of its purpose is shifted from the egoistic and limited enjoyment to the universal and unlimited one, beyond individual. So it opens up the doors for the universal forces to enter and to take possession of the action itself. That is the reason why one should step back from the preferences of habitual activities and become totally free and open for the universal forces to act.
3) And once the action itself is done by the universal forces it becomes eligible or step closer to the discovery of the unborn Self and eventually the descent of the Supreme Consciousness-Power that alone can transform the mortal existence into immortal one. This stage is known in the Gita as freedom from the actor himself.

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